Rabu, 13 Januari 2010

Etnografi Prinsip-prinsip Praktis


Etnografi adalah metode penelitian sosial-budaya – yg dikaitkan dg pentingnya pemahaman meng masy yg dipelajari & pengamatan thd kegiatan mrk se-hari-2.
Etnografi dipahami a. l. sebagai
(1) “elicitation of cultural knowledge” (perolehan
pengetahuan budaya) (Spradley 1980);
(2) “the detailed investigation of patterns of social
interaction” (penyelidikan terinci mengenai pola-2
interaksi sosial) (Gumperz 1981);
(3) “holistic analysis of societies” (analisis holistik
tentang masyarakat) (Lutz 1981);
(4) “ethnography is portrayed as essentially
descriptive, or perhaps as a form of story-telling”
(etnografi digambarkan sebagai deskriptif, atau
mungkin sebentuk penceritaan) (Walker 1981);
(5) “great emphasis is laid on the development and
testing of theory” (penekanan terletak pada
pengembangan dan pengujian teori) (Glaser &
Strauss 1967; Denzin 1978).

Kmd jelas bhw etnografi adl metode riset sosial, dg menarik sumber-2 informasi yg luas. Etnografer berperan-serta dlm khdpn masy se-hari-2 selama periode wkt ttt (yg panj), mengamati apa yg trjd, mendengarkan apa yg dikatakan, melakukan wwncr; mengumpulkan data apa pun yg tersedia u/ menyoroti masalah yg jadi perhatiannya.
Dlm banyak hal etnografi mrpkn bntk paling dasar dr riset sosial: mmbw deskripsi yg mirip dg cara-2 harian ketika orang/masy menjlnkn hdp se-hari-2.
Melalui etnografi makna-2 yg memberi bntk & isi bg proses-2 sos dpt dipahami. Metode-2 ‘artificial’ (dangkal) spt eksperimen & wwncr survei tak diandalkan, atas dasar bhw metode-2 tsb tak mampu menangkap makna dr kegiatan-2 manusia se-hari-2.
Two conflicting paradigms: ‘positivism’ (quantitative methods) and ‘naturalism’ (ethnography as the central social research method).

Positivisme & Naturalisme
Positivism: gerakan yg berpengaruh thd para ilmuwan sos dlm mendorong status riset eksperimental & survei & bentuk-2 analisis kuantitatif yg dikaitkan dgnya (puncaknya: logical positivism, 1930s-1940s, Kolakowski 1972). Dlm sosiologi & psikologi sosial teknik-2 kualitatif & kuantitatif telah lazim digunakan scr bersamaan.
Prinsip-Prinsip Utama Positivisme
1. Sains fisikal: logika eksperimen jadi model bagi riset sosial;
2. Aturan2 universal;
3. Bahasa observasi netral: ciri teori ilmiah: terbuka u/ ujian: dpt ditegaskan atau setidak-tidaknya dipalsukan (p. 5).
Naturalisme: gerakan dalam penelitian yg kmd dikaitkan dg metode-2 kualitatif, yakni mengandalkan penelitian lapangan, tempat individu dan masy hidup dlm natural setting sehari-2, dan peneliti mengamatinya dlm kehidupan yang alami dan apa adanya. Pengamatan terlibat dan wawancara mendalam yg menyentuh inti persoalan masy sesungguhnya dan sehari-2 atau rutin menjadi andalan dlm pengumpulan data untuk menjadi bahan analisis dan menarik kesimpulan. Oleh sebab itu, peneliti biasanya hidup & tinggal dlm masy ybs dlm jangka wkt ttt.

Key Concepts & Terms
● The ethnographic method starts w/
(1) selection of a culture,
(2) review of the literature pertaining to the culture,
(3) and identification of variables of interest – typically variables perceived as significant by members of the culture.
● The ethnographer then goes about gaining entrance, which in turn sets the stage for cultural immersion of the ethnographer in the culture. It is not unusual for ethnographers to live in the culture for months or even years.
● The middle stages of ethnographic method involve gaining informants, using them to gain yet more informants in a chaining process, and gathering of data in the form of observational transcripts and interview recordings.
● Data analysis and theory development come at the end, though theories may emerge from cultural immersion and theory-articulation by members of the culture. However, the ethnographic researcher strives to avoid theoretical preconceptions and instead to induce theory from the perspectives of the members of the culture and from observation.
● The researcher may seek validation of induced theories by going back to members of the culture for their reaction.
● Ethnographic methodologies vary and some ethnographers advocate use of structured observation schedules by which one may code observed behaviors or cultural artifacts for purposes of later statistical analysis.
♦ Macro-ethnography is the study of broadly-defined cultural groupings, such as “the Javanese” or “Semarangese.”
♦ Micro-ethnography is the study of narrowly-defined cultural groupings, such as “Students of English Department” or “The Street Side Sellers.”
♣ Emic perspective is ethnographic research approach to the way the members of the given culture perceive their world. The emic perspective is usually the main focus of ethnography.
♣ Etic perspective is ethnographic research approach to the way non-members (outsiders) perceive and interpret behaviors and phenomena associated with a given culture.
■ Symbols, always a focus of ethnographic research, are any material artefact of a culture, such as art, clothing, or even technology. The ethnographer strives to understand the cultural connotations associated with symbols. Technology, for instance, may be interpreted in terms of how it relates to an implied plan to bring about a different desired state for the culture.

►Cultural patterning is the observation of cultural patterns forming relationships involving two or more symbols. Ethnographic research is holistic, believing that symbols cannot be understood in isolation but instead are elements of a whole. One method of patterning is conceptual mapping, using the terms of members of the culture themselves to relate symbols across varied forms of behavior and in varied contexts. Another method is to focus on learning process, in order to understand how a culture transmits what it perceives to be important across generations. A third method is to focus on sanctioning processes, in order to understand which cultural elements are formally (ex., legally) prescribed or proscribed and which are informally prescribed or proscribed, and of these which are enforced through sanction and which are unenforced.

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